Each Bio Machine is coded. To improve Bio Machine we should know history. In the same way I shall try to write about history of Mohyal Tribe.
MOHYALS - THE WARRIOR BRAHMIN CLASS
Who are Mohyals?
Mohyals are a class of Brahmins whose origin is shrouded in mystery.
They are a distinct category of Brahmins who combine military knowledge with wise learning and never pretended to do any priestly duties. This militant Brahmin race is divided into seven clans known as Datt, Bali, Chhibber, Vaid, Mohan, Lau and Bhimwal.
Any authentic history of their origin is not available. However, mention about them is made in historical records from the earliest times. During the time of the British East India Company , in the early part of the last century, TP Russell Tracey made a serious effort and wrote the history of this class , which was gratefully acknowledged by the General Mohyal Sabha at Lahore on 30 June1911.
He mentions that the Mohyals are primarily a military class, divided into seven clans claiming their origin from the Raj Rishis, who figured long before the Mahabharat, they have been prominently associated with the government of the country whether military or civil, in the days of universal Hindu rules. They have also figured at some early period of history in the affairs of Arabia, Central Asia Afghanistan and Persia . At the time of his writing he states that they were spread from Afghanistan, Punjab to Bihar. In UP and Bihar they were known as Bhumihars. The Bhumihars also claim their descent from Parshu Ram from whom the Chibbers also claim descent.
Mohyals claim their origin from the Raj Rishis who figured long before the Mahabharata. Being of pre-vedic origin the ancient Mohyals paid homage to their spiritual leaders like Parshu Ram. Their basic religion was the belief in the laws of morality as enunciated by the sages Vyasa and Vashishtha.
The Mohyals claim that they are the progenies of the great Raj Rishis who were distinctly different from the class of Brahm Rishis because besides being high priests of spiritualism, they also wielded temporal powers. In fact, Parshu Ram was the first Brahmin in history to wear arms and to conquer territories.
There are other theories about the origin of Mohyals. They have figured in Arabia as citizens and rulers of the land. They lived in Arabia like free citizens. The word 'Misr' in the Arabic script is inscribed on the antiques found in the possession of certain Mohyal families.
Mohyals are paragons of valor and virtuosity and are always ready to sacrifice their lives for the sake of dharma or the nation. They have fought determinately against fanaticism, religious bigotry and social injustice. They have adapted themselves to the successive rules of the Mughals, the Sikhs and the British with no recorded instance of treachery.
Mohyals abhor 3 things : 'the taking of charity', 'the handling of scales(trading)' and 'living a life of laziness'. Though numerically unimportant, they are a stirring and enterprising race, and frequently rise to prominence in the service of the government which they enter in large numbers. They are remarkable among the Hindu population in being hereditary agriculturists seldom practicing trade and specially despising the life of indolence led by the ordinary Brahmin who lives by charity and with whom the Mohyals, though admitting a common origin, strongly object to be classed with. top
The word 'Mohyal'
The word Mohyal comes from the Prakrit form of the Sanskrit word 'mahipal' and does not seem to be more than 6-7 centuries old. With the passage of times, over the generations, a distinct class of Brahmins arose who discarded the priestly vocation in favour of administrative and military careers and became the ruling elite. It was a custom in those days that government servants were paid their wages in the form of land grants. The land given remained with the recipient family in perpetuity which led to the evolution of a new social order of the landed aristocracy. The Mohyals and the Bhumihars of East-Up were an off-shoot of this phenomenon. The word Mohyal is accepted as being the corrupted form of 'Mahiwal' or 'Mahipal' meaning 'the owner of land'.
There is another interpretation of its being derived from the word 'Muhin'. 'Muhin' symbolizes the 7 castes into which the community is divided. In ancient dialect 'Mohi' or 'Mahi' denoted land while 'al' meant respectable man. Mohyals were the masters of the land and their deity was 'Hal Ram' alias 'Bal Ram' alias 'Bal Dev'. He is the Aryan God of agriculture; in one hand he holds the plough and in the other the pestle. top
From times immemorial till the partition of Bharat in 1947, the main habitat of the Mohyals was northern India, notably West Punjab (now part of Pakistan) , the erstwhile NWFP and Jammu & Kashmir. There were many districts like Rawalpindi, Jhelum , Gujrat , Sargodha and Gurdaspur in West Punjab which had large concentration of the community. There were villages in these districts in which a certain caste of the Mohyals dominated and the place was known with that caste as a suffix (e.g. 'Kanjrur Dattan', 'Tehi Balian' , 'Dera Bakshian' and so on..). Kanjrur itself was a conglomeration of half a dozen villages. Each one of them had a good number of Mohyals. The river Ravi was regarded as the limit of Mohyal country as there were very few Mohyals living on the east-side of the river.
In the ancient abodes, the 7 castes of the communities lived a closely knit life. Many families shared a common terrace or a balcony and their members lived on first-named terms with each other. In the early decades of this century, when the reclaimed 'Bar' area was being colonized many Mohyal families settled down in districts of Shekhupura, Lyallpur and Montogomerry and became owners of large agricultural farms and orchards. Lahore which was the seat of govt. and center for education drew hordes of Mohyals and they distinguished themselves in diverse professions. The city even boasted of a 'Kucha Balian'. Many adventurous Mohyals became citizens of Kabul, Burma and Nairobi. After 1947, Mohyals spread in all directions making the whole of India their home. Outside the country, there are a sizable number of Mohyals in UK, USA and Canada.
During the partition, the entire Mohyal community migrated to India but 2 valiant families decided to stay on in their ancestral Karyala. One was headed by Bhai Dalip Singh who was later shot dead by hired Muslim goons. The other Bhai Jagat Singh continued to stay there. He married a Brahmin girl of 'Pind Dadan Khan' whose parents also refused to leave Pakistan. Their children are still living there. top
The Mohyals believed in the joint family system. The grandfather was the chief patriarch and the grandmother, the source of all inspiration. The women carried on with the traditions, observed fasts and represented the family in the community weddings and mourning.
The birth of son was heralded with the firing of crackers. When the boy was three years or five years old ,his Mundan (Jhand) was performed. The festivity and feasting on this occasion were on a scale next only to that of a wedding. A male lamb , with jet black head and spotlessly white body, its head washed in water and smeared with Vermillion and Curd was taken to a Jhand (prosopic spicigera) tree. The lobe of its ear was pierced and with its blood a `tikka' marked on the child's forehead. This was a symbolic baptism with blood and ordained the child to endure the wounds that might be inflicted in the battles to come. An earthen `diya' was lit and a wicker basket, turned upside down, was placed on it. It was surrounded by `thuthis'(earthen cups) The child in his bridal finery sat on the basket, and after the ceremony Was over, he would trample on the `thuthis', smashing them-signifying the crushing of the enemies. The sacrificial lamb was then slaughtered in one blow. It was eventually feasted upon, none but Mohyals being permitted to share it. It was considered as `prasad' And even the women, howsoever rigid vegetarians, had to take a morsel. Later on, some families substituted the lamb with it's effigy made out of `halwa.'
In the case of Sikh Mohyals ,instead of Mundan, Kesh Gunthan or coiffuring of hair was resorted to. The Jhand ceremony derived its name from Jhand tree which was the focus of the function. When the Pandavas were defeated by the Kauravas and exiled, they hid their weapons in the hollow of the Jhand tree. Ever after, the tree has been an object of worship by warrior tribes. These rites clearly show that from the earliest days a Mohyal youth was impressed with one object in life and that was that he was born to fight. The Mundans are still performed with great pomp but are shorn of the traditional rites.
Another auspicious ceremony in the life of a boy, before he grew 12 years old, was Yagyopavit. The function was performed in front of the sacramental fire,accompanied by the chanting of Vedic hymns. The sacred thread, made from spun wool, girdled the neck and the loins of the child suggestive of the cross-belt of a soldier and marked his anointment as a Brahmin. The thread was renewed Half- yearly, at the time of the Navratra Ashtmi.
On all ceremonial occasions, Mohyals prepared Mitteran-da-Halwa, which was distributed amongst the members of the clan. At the time of a girl's marriage, the brother gave puffed rice to his sister which she threw back over her head to symbolize that the bride will flourish in her new environs as the rice does on transplantation.
Every Mohyal family had its own Purohit ,a Bhat and a barber (Nai). The Purohit Solemnized all religious ceremonies, the Bhat used to recite ballads recalling the valiant deeds of the family's ancestors while the Nai was the traditional envoy for carrying messages.
The old Mohyals were very proud of the purity of their racial blood and never courted marriages outside their own fraternal fold. A divorce was never heard of. As they lived close to the battle scarred frontiers, in areas dominated by the Muslims, there was a definite stamp of the customs and ways of life of the Latter on Mohyals; e.g. they were by and large meat-eaters, the shalwar was a common dress of both men and women , Urdu was the medium of education. But whatever the political and environmental compulsions, the Mohyals faithfully preserved their racial identity, their social conventions and their inherent graces. They are a self- respecting class and resent injustice and insult.top
A Mohyal is a Brahmin as well as a warrior. This paradox runs in every Mohyal family. Their history is an unending saga of sacrifice and gallantry.
When Alexander the Great invaded India in 326 BC he was challenged near Taxila by a mere chieftain. He was King Porus, a Vaid Mohyal. After his encounter with Porus, Alexander met with more resistance near Multan where the forces were predominantly Mohyal. Multan in those days was the capital of Bali rulers. They engaged Alexander's army in skirmishes in which many senior Generals died. The long and bitter fighting forced Alexander to call of his dream of conquering India and order a retreat.
The Mohyals also used their fighting prowess to uphold nobler values of life. They shed their blood at Karbala in 681 AD to show their solidarity with the Prophet's kin. In 1527, they were slaughtered to the last man, just to safeguard the viriginity of a Khatri girl.
During the Mughal and Sikh rule, they were bestowed with titles like Bakshi, Dewan, Mehta etc. in reward for their bravery. Maharaja Ranjit Singh appointed many Mohyals to his famous Vadda Risala-the Life Guards of the Lion of Punjab. During the British period, fifty percent of the Mohyal commisioned officers, were decorated with awards for their distinguished services.
After independence Mohyals have won laurels during the wars with China and Pakistan. When the Military Academy results are published Mohyals figure in large number amongst the successful candidates. When gallantry awards are announced, they form a sizeable number. top
All castes of Mohyals have the rare privilege of using certain titles with their names that were bestowed on them by the Mogul and Sikh rulers for their bravery and unimpeachable loyalty. These appellations which are still in use are:- Bakshi, Bhai, Chaudhri, Dewan, Malik, Mehta and Raizada. These epithets have a Persian connotation and imply status.
'Bakshi' means benevolent,
'Chaudhri' means head of the family or village,
'Dewan' means a landlord,
'Mehta' means the in charge of finance/property
'Raizada' means a wise man or adviser.
The title of 'Bhai' was specially conferred on the Chibbers of Karyala by the Sikh Gurus for their great sacrifices and devotion to dharma. The Dewans (prime ministers) of all the ten Gurus were Chibbers of Karyala. The title of Chaudhri was a mark of distinction of the Datts of Kanjrur, Veeram and Zaffarwal. The title of Dewan was used by the Datts hailing from Guliana and certain other places, Raizada was used mostly by Balis and occasionally by Vaids. The prefixes of Mehta and Bakshi are commonly used by the various castes of Mohyals. As some of the titles currently used by the Mohyals are also used by certain non-Mohyal communities, it is desirable to mention both the courtesy title as well as the caste with the name, to clearly denote the Mohyal identity. top
A few centuries ago, the family of Mohyals was part of a conglomeration of 52 castes although they fraternized with only have a dozen castes apart from their own guild of seven castes. Even in their own circle of seven castes, the Mohyals in the past were rather cool towards the Laus and Bhimwals, in the matter of marriages, but this attitude is now wearing off. The Mohyal community was facing serious difficulty in finding matches for their children in their own fraternity, even before partition. Somehow they were able to manage the alliances amongst themselves and thus preserve the genealogical purity of the clan. This was possible because the community almost in its entirety lived in the Punjab, in formidable strength in numerous mandis. However after partition, the demographic map nderwent a change with only about 10% Mohyals left in the Punjab, nearly 20% settled in Delhi, around 30% living in Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and UP and the rest scattered in small numbers all over the country and in foreign lands. As a result of these changes, an already critical matrimonial problem confronting the Mohyal society was further aggravated. This led to marriages being courted not only with non Mohyal Brahmins but even with non-brahmins.
Some of the counterparts of the Mohyals in different states are: Tyagis, Purohit, Vyas, Chitpavans, Mishra, Sinha, Bhaduri, Chakravart, Ganguly, Goswami, Maitra, Sanyal, Dass, Iyers. top
1. The History of Mohyals - A Legendary People
- by Shri P.N.Bali
2. The History of The Muhiyals - The Militant Brahmin Race of India
- by T.P.Rusell Stracey
Col Pushpinder is manager in Mohan Meakin Ltd. He gave me one book written by Major C.L.Datta ( Rtd) . Book title is "With two Presidents - The Inside Story" by Vikas Publications, Reprinted November 1970.
"The British Raj had named certain Indian races martial. In undivided Punjab besides the Muslims and Jats this designation was given among Hindus only to the Mohyal Brahmins, of whom I was one. They were a militant clan, descended according to legend from Dronacharya, the initiator of the Pandava in to the art of war. Mohyals were primarily farmers and fighters. They were a rugged, sturdy folk, straightforward in their dealings and ever ready to lay down their lives in defence of their honour."
Mohyals comprise seven sub castes- Datt ( poularly known as Datta), Chhibber, Bali, Mohan, Vaid, Bhimwal and Lau. It is said that Porus , who faught the Greek invader Alexander the Great was a Vaid. Titles like Bakshi , Chowdhury, Raizada and Mehta were conferred on them by various rulers of Punjab for the distiguished services they rendered on the battlefield.
Mohyal always sacrificed their lives for any cause. Mohyal opposed Moghuls. Chhibber ,Bhai Mati Das , suffered for refusing to become a Muslim at the behest of Emperor Aurangjeb. Mati Das was sawn in two at Chandani Chowk, where the Fountain now stands.
According to official records, probably, the first Military Cross won by a member of the Indian Army in World War I went to a medical officer Bali. In the recent opeartions against China and Pakistan fighting men of the Mohyal clan received three Mahaveer Chakras and more than 11 Vir Chakras besides several other citations.
The Mohyals , emotionally closely knit, spread themselves in the 19th centuary in the Northwest Frontier Province, in Gurdaspur district of Punjab and places like Gulyana, Veerum, Daoba and Kanjrur in the Jhelum Valley. Some of the families were living near Jaffarwal and Ballarwal.
2.0 I received today Mohyal Mitter of October 2008. Vijaya Ghose , Editor of Limca book of records wrote that first issue , in urdu , had come out in september 1891 from Lahore ( Now in Pakistan)
3.0 P.L.Mehta has written " COLD BLOODED MASSACRE AT KAMUKI ( 24th Spt. 1947 )
" Dead bodies which were in the train were sent to India with the remarks " Tofa a Hindustan to Pt. Nehru and Mahatama Gandhi Ko " ----- When RSS volunteers came to our rescue they gave us food and clothes. As this is not the right place to write in detail , I shall publish at other place and attach link to this.
"Dutt Sultan : Adhe Hindu Adhe Musalman"