Each Bio Machine (human being) is coded. To improve this bio-machine we should know history. In the same way, I shall try to write about the history of the Mohyal Tribe. "This is the Military History of the Mohyals – an Indian clan of fighting Brahmins. They are Saraswat Brahmins who dwelt on the banks of the ancient river Saraswati - that once flowed from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea. As such, they came in the path of each and every invader who came to loot or subjugate India. The warrior sage, Parshuram, had militarised them in the early epic period. From priests, these Brahmins had morphed into Mohyal fighting Brahmins, brave and tenacious fighters with a great tradition of soldiering. After Alexander's invasion, Chanakya recruited the Mauryan Army from this region. They became the Bhumiar Brahmins who later settled in Bihar and UP, and helped unify India for the Mauryan empire. Surprisingly, a Mohyal clan fought in Iraq on the side of the Shias’ in the famous Karbala war. The Mohyal Shahi rulers of Afghanistan stopped the world-conquering Arab armies on the Hindu Kush and gave them their first taste of defeat and held them off for 300 years. They fought the Arab invasions of Sindh, Mehmood Ghaznavi, and Muhammad Ghori. When the Mughal empire turned tyrannical under Aurangzeb, they flocked to the banner of the Sikh Gurus to overthrow this evil tyranny. Baba Paraga, Bhai Mati Das, and Banda Bairagi were great soldier saints of the Sikh military tradition. They were all Mohyals who played a major role in the Indian military revival that took place with the Sikhs and the Marathas. This book is an invaluable record of all the military invasions of India from the third century B.C. onwards. The soldiers and scholars of History will find it an invaluable document about Indian Military History per se – right from the Vedic times to the present era. These fighting Brahmins have maintained their military traditions. Post-independence, 2/Lt Puneet Datt won the Ashok Chakra – the highest gallantry award in the land. Four Mohyal officers won the Mahavir Chakra and the other four, the Vir Chakra. Six Mohyals have risen to the rank of Army Commander and equivalent in the Indian Army and Air Force, and three became the governor of states. 10 became Lt Generals and 15 Maj Generals – all from a minuscule community – just 6 lakh strong. They are like the Samurai of Japan – great patriots, scholar-warriors, and erstwhile feudal lords who have made enormous sacrifices for their country. They have been the guardians of its gates. " G.D.Bakshi - see Bibliography

There is a village by the name of Datta families where Datt Mohyals used to live and play. Datta Khel village name till now is not changed. This village is in Federally Administered Tribal Area of Pakistan. This confirms that Datta clan used to live near Hindu Kush area. Datta are known as Husseini Brahmin.


Who are Mohyals?

Mohyals are a class of Brahmins whose origin is shrouded in mystery.

They are a distinct category of Brahmins who combine military knowledge with wise learning and never pretended to do any priestly duties. This militant Brahmin race is divided into seven clans known as Datt, Bali, Chhibber, Vaid, Mohan, Lau, and Bhimwal.

Any authentic history of their origin is not available. However, mention about them is made in historical records from the earliest times. During the time of the British East India Company, in the early part of the last century, TP Russell Tracey made a serious effort and wrote the history of this class, which was gratefully acknowledged by General Mohyal Sabha at Lahore on 30 June 1911.

He mentions that the Mohyals are primarily a military class, divided into seven clans claiming their origin from the Raj Rishis, who figured long before the Mahabharat, they have been prominently associated with the government of the country whether military or civil, in the days of universal Hindu rules. They have also figured at some early period of history in the affairs of Arabia, Central Asia Afghanistan, and Persia. At the time of his writing, he states that they were spread from Afghanistan, Punjab to Bihar. In UP and Bihar, they were known as Bhumihars. The Bhumihars also claim their descent from Parshu Ram from whom the Chibbers also claim descent.

Mohyals claim their origin from the Raj Rishis who figured long before the Mahabharata. Being of pre-Vedic origin the ancient Mohyals paid homage to their spiritual leaders like Parshu Ram. Their basic religion was the belief in the laws of morality as enunciated by the sages Vyasa and Vashishtha.

The Mohyals claim that they are the progenies of the great Raj Rishis who were distinctly different from the class of Brahm Rishis because besides being high priests of spiritualism, they also wielded temporal powers. In fact, Parshu Ram was the first Brahmin in history to wear arms and to conquer territories.

There are other theories about the origin of Mohyals. They have figured in Arabia as citizens and rulers of the land. They lived in Arabia like free citizens. The word 'Misr' in the Arabic script is inscribed on the antiques found in the possession of certain Mohyal families.


Mohyals are paragons of valor and virtuosity and are always ready to sacrifice their lives for the sake of dharma or the nation. They have fought determinately against fanaticism, religious bigotry, and social injustice. They have adapted themselves to the successive rules of the Mughals, the Sikhs, and the British with no recorded instance of treachery.

Mohyals abhor 3 things: 'the taking of charity, 'the handling of scales(trading)' and 'living a life of laziness'. Though numerically unimportant, they are a stirring and enterprising race, and frequently rise to prominence in the service of the government which they enter in large numbers. They are remarkable among the Hindu population in being hereditary agriculturists seldom practicing the trade and especially despising the life of indolence led by the ordinary Brahmin who lives by charity and with whom the Mohyals, though admitting a common origin, strongly object to being classed with.

The word 'Mohyal'

The word Mohyal comes from the Prakrit form of the Sanskrit word 'mahipal' and does not seem to be more than 6-7 centuries old. With the passage of time, over the generations, a distinct class of Brahmins arose who discarded the priestly vocation in favour of administrative and military careers and became the ruling elite. It was a custom in those days that government servants were paid their wages in the form of land grants. The land given remained with the recipient family in perpetuity which led to the evolution of a new social order of the landed aristocracy. The Mohyals and the Bhumihars of East-Up were an off-shoot of this phenomenon. The word Mohyal is accepted as being the corrupted form of 'Mahiwal' or 'Mahipal' meaning 'the owner of land'.

There is another interpretation of its being derived from the word 'Muhin'. 'Muhin' symbolizes the 7 castes into which the community is divided. In ancient dialect, 'Mohi' or 'Mahi' denoted land while 'al' meant respectable man. Mohyals were the masters of the land and their deity was 'Hal Ram' alias 'Bal Ram' alias 'Bal Dev'. He is the Aryan God of agriculture; in one hand he holds the plough and in the other the pestle.


From times immemorial till the partition of Bharat in 1947, the main habitat of the Mohyals was northern India, notably West Punjab (now part of Pakistan) , the erstwhile NWFP, and Jammu & Kashmir. There were many districts like Rawalpindi, Jhelum, Gujrat, Sargodha, and Gurdaspur in West Punjab which had a large concentration of the community. There were villages in these districts in which a certain caste of the Mohyals dominated and the place was known with that caste as a suffix (e.g. 'Kanjrur Dattan', 'Tehi Balian' , 'Dera Bakshian' and so on..). Kanjrur itself was a conglomeration of half a dozen villages. Each one of them had a good number of Mohyals. The river Ravi was regarded as the limit of Mohyal country as there were very few Mohyals living on the east side of the river.

In the ancient abodes, the 7 castes of the communities lived a closely-knit life. Many families shared a common terrace or a balcony and their members lived on first-named terms with each other. In the early decades of this century, when the reclaimed 'Bar' area was being colonized many Mohyal families settled down in districts of Shekhupura, Lyallpur, and Montogomery and became owners of large agricultural farms and orchards. Lahore which was the seat of govt. and center for education drew hordes of Mohyals and they distinguished themselves in diverse professions. The city even boasted of a 'Kucha Balian'. Many adventurous Mohyals became citizens of Kabul, Burma, and Nairobi. After 1947, Mohyals spread in all directions making the whole of India their home. Outside the country, there are a sizable number of Mohyals in the UK, USA, and Canada.

During the partition, the entire Mohyal community migrated to India but 2 valiant families decided to stay on in their ancestral Karjala. One was headed by Bhai Dalip Singh who was later shot dead by hired Muslim goons. The other Bhai Jagat Singh continued to stay there. He married a Brahmin girl of 'Pind Dadan Khan' whose parents also refused to leave Pakistan. Their children are still living there. top


The Mohyals believed in the joint family system. The grandfather was the chief patriarch and the grandmother, the source of all inspiration. The women carried on with the traditions, observed fasts, and represented the family in the community weddings and mourning.

The birth of son was heralded with the firing of crackers. When the boy was three years or five years old, his Mundan (Jhand) was performed. The festivity and feasting on this occasion were on a scale next only to that of a wedding. A male lamb, with jet black head and spotlessly white body, its head washed in water and smeared with Vermillion and Curd was taken to a Jhand (Prosopis spicigera) tree. The lobe of its ear was pierced and with its blood, a `tikka' टिक्का / तिलक marked on the child's forehead. This was a symbolic baptism with blood and ordained the child to endure the wounds that might be inflicted in the battles to come. An earthen 'diya' दिया / दीपक was lit and a wicker basket turned upside down, was placed on it. It was surrounded by `thuthis' (earthen cups) The child in his bridal finery sat on the basket, and after the ceremony Was over, he would trample on the `thuthis', smashing them-signifying the crushing of the enemies. The sacrificial lamb was then slaughtered in one blow. It was eventually feasted upon, none but Mohyals being permitted to share it. It was considered as `prasad' प्रसाद . And even the women, howsoever rigid vegetarians, had to take a morsel. Later on, some families substituted the lamb with its effigy made out of `halwa' हलवा .

In the case of Sikh Mohyals, instead of Mundan, Kesh Gunthan or coiffuring of hair was resorted to. The Jhand ceremony derived its name from the Jhand tree which was the focus of the function. When the Pandavas were defeated by the Kauravas and exiled, they hid their weapons in the hollow of the Jhand tree. Ever after, the tree has been an object of worship by warrior tribes. These rites clearly show that from the earliest days a Mohyal youth was impressed with one object in life and that was that he was born to fight. The Mundans मुंडन are still performed with great pomp but are shorn of the traditional rites.

Another auspicious ceremony in the life of a boy, before he grew 12 years old, was Yagyopavit. The function was performed in front of the sacramental fire, accompanied by the chanting of Vedic hymns. The sacred thread, made from spun wool, girdled the neck and the loins of the child suggestive of the cross-belt of a soldier and marked his anointment as a Brahmin. The thread was renewed half-yearly, at the time of the Navratra Ashtmi (अष्टमी).

On all ceremonial occasions, Mohyals prepared Mitteran-da-Halwa, which was distributed amongst the members of the clan. At the time of a girl's marriage, the brother gave puffed rice to his sister which she threw back over her head to symbolize that the bride will flourish in her new environs as the rice does on transplantation.

Every Mohyal family had its own Purohit (पुरोहित), a Bhat, and a barber (Naiनाई). The Purohit Solemnized all religious ceremonies, the Bhat used to recite ballads recalling the valiant deeds of the family's ancestors while the Nai was the traditional envoy for carrying messages.

The old Mohyals were very proud of the purity of their racial blood and never courted marriages outside their own fraternal fold. Divorce was never heard of. As they lived close to the battle-scarred frontiers, in areas dominated by the Muslims, there was a definite stamp of the customs and ways of life of the latter on Mohyals; e.g. they were by and large meat-eaters, the shalwar (सलवार) was a common dress of both men and women. Urdu was the medium of education. But whatever the political and environmental compulsions, the Mohyals faithfully preserved their racial identity, their social conventions, and their inherent graces. They are a self-respecting class and resent injustice and insult.top


A Mohyal is a Brahmin as well as a warrior. This paradox runs in every Mohyal family. Their history is an unending saga of sacrifice and gallantry.

When Alexander the Great invaded India in 326 BC he was challenged near Taxila by a mere chieftain. He was King Porus, a Vaid Mohyal. After his encounter with Porus, Alexander met with more resistance near Multan where the forces were predominantly Mohyal. Multan in those days was the capital of Bali rulers. They engaged Alexander's army in skirmishes in which many senior Generals died. The long and bitter fighting forced Alexander to call of his dream of conquering India and order a retreat.

The Mohyals also used their fighting prowess to uphold nobler values of life. They shed their blood at Karbala in 681 AD to show their solidarity with the Prophet's kin. In 1527, they were slaughtered to the last man, just to safeguard the virginity of a Khatri girl.

During the Mughal and Sikh rule, they were bestowed with titles like Bakshi, Dewan, Mehta etc. in reward for their bravery. Maharaja Ranjit Singh appointed many Mohyals to his famous Vadda Risala-the Life Guards of the Lion of Punjab. During the British period, fifty percent of the Mohyal commissioned officers, were decorated with awards for their distinguished services.

After independence Mohyals have won laurels during the wars with China and Pakistan. When the Military Academy results are published Mohyals figure in large number amongst the successful candidates. When gallantry awards are announced, they form a sizeable number.


All castes of Mohyals have the rare privilege of using certain titles with their names that were bestowed on them by the Mogul and Sikh rulers for their bravery and unimpeachable loyalty. These appellations which are still in use are:- Bakshi, Bhai, Chaudhri, Dewan, Malik, Mehta, and Raizada. These epithets have a Persian connotation and imply status.

'Bakshi' means benevolent,

'Chaudhri' means head of the family or village,

'Dewan' means a landlord,

'Mehta' means the in charge of finance/property

'Raizada' means a wise man or adviser.

The title of 'Bhai' was specially conferred on the Chibbers of Karyala by the Sikh Gurus for their great sacrifices and devotion to dharma. The Dewans (prime ministers) of all the ten Gurus were Chibbers of Karjala / Karyala (करयाला). The title of Chaudhri was a mark of distinction of the Datts of Kanjrur, Veeram and Zaffarwal. The title of Dewan was used by the Datts hailing from Giuliana and certain other places, Raizada was used mostly by Balis and occasionally by Vaids. The prefixes of Mehta and Bakshi are commonly used by the various castes of Mohyals. As some of the titles currently used by the Mohyals are also used by certain non-Mohyal communities, it is desirable to mention both the courtesy title as well as the caste with the name, to clearly denote the Mohyal identity. Datta Khel village is still located in the Federally Administered Tribal Area of Pakistan.

A few centuries ago, the family of Mohyals was part of a conglomeration of 52 castes although they fraternized with only have a dozen castes apart from their own guild of seven castes. Even in their own circle of seven castes, the Mohyals in the past were rather cool towards the Laus and Bhimwals, in the matter of marriages, but this attitude is now wearing off. The Mohyal community was facing serious difficulty in finding matches for their children in their own fraternity, even before partition. Somehow they were able to manage the alliances amongst themselves and thus preserve the genealogical purity of the clan. This was possible because the community almost in its entirety lived in Punjab, in formidable strength in numerous mandis (मंडी). However, after partition, the demographic map underwent a change with only about 10% Mohyals left in Punjab, nearly 20% settled in Delhi, around 30% living in Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttrakhand, the rest scattered in small numbers all over the country and in foreign lands. As a result of these changes, an already critical matrimonial problem confronting the Mohyal society was further aggravated. This led to marriages being courted not only with non Mohyal Brahmins but even with non-brahmins.

Some of the counterparts of the Mohyals in different states are Tyagis, Purohit, Vyas, Chitpavans, Mishra, Sinha, Bhaduri, Chakravarty, Ganguly, Goswami, Maitra, Sanyal, Dass, Iyers.

References :

1. The History of Mohyals - A Legendary People - by Shri P.N.Bali

2. The History of The Muhiyals - The Militant Brahmin Race of India - by T.P.Rusell Stracey

Major C.L. Datta

My friend " Col Pushpinder (Retd)", Ex- Mohan Meakin Ltd, gave me one book written by Major C.L.Datta ( Rtd) .

According to Major C.L.Datta "The British Raj had named certain Indian races martial. In undivided Punjab, besides the Muslims and Jats, this designation was given among Hindus only to the Mohyal Brahmins, of whom I was one. They were a militant clan, descended according to a legend from Dronacharya, the initiator of the Pandava into the art of war. Mohyals were primarily farmers and fighters. They were a rugged, sturdy folk, straightforward in their dealings and ever ready to lay down their lives in defence of their honour."

Mohyals comprise seven sub-castes- Datt ( popularly known as Datta), Chhibber, Bali, Mohan, Vaid, Bhimwal, and Lau. It is said that Porus, who fought the Greek invader Alexander the Great was a Vaid. Titles like Bakshi, Chowdhury, Raizada, and Mehta were conferred on them by various rulers of Punjab for the distinguished services they rendered on the battlefield.

Mohyal always sacrificed their lives for any cause. Mohyal opposed Moghuls. Chhibber, Bhai Mati Das, suffered for refusing to become a Muslim at the behest of Emperor Aurangzeb. Mati Das was sawn in two at Chandani Chowk, where the Fountain now stands.

According to official records, probably, the first Military Cross won by a member of the Indian Army in World War I went to a medical officer Bali. In the recent operations against China and Pakistan fighting men of the Mohyal clan received three Mahaveer Chakras and more than 11 Vir Chakras besides several other citations.

The Mohyals, emotionally closely knit, spread themselves in the 19th century in the Northwest Frontier Province, in the Gurdaspur district of Punjab and places like Gulyana, Veerum, Daoba, and Kanjrur in the Jhelum Valley. Some of the families were living near Jaffarwal and Ballarwal.

2.0 I received today Mohyal Mitter of October 2008. Vijaya Ghose, editor of Limca book of records wrote that the first issue, in Urdu, had come out in September 1891 from Lahore ( Now in Pakistan)

3.0 P.L.Mehta has written " COLD BLOODED MASSACRE AT KAMUKI ( 24th Spt. 1947 )

" Dead bodies which were in the train were sent to India with the remarks " Tofa a Hindustan to Pt. Nehru and Mahatama Gandhi Ko "तोफा ए हिन्दोस्तान पंडित नेहरू तथा महात्मा गाँधी को . When RSS volunteers came to our rescue they gave us food and clothes. As this is not the right place to write in detail, I shall publish at another place and attach the link to this.

Hussaini Brahmin - Mohyal

Mohyals fought for Imam Hussain in the battle of Karbala

Dattas are also known as Sultan. It shows that Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Sikh are all human beings. Marriages between each religion was very common. All were living together in peace. Differences are created due to greed of individuals.

So I preach again that let us love human beings. Let us forget religion, caste, national boundaries, colour or sex. Let us live together. Let us live and let others live.

I agree we can not achieve all this due to ego, greed, jealousy, hatred, and pride. How can these emotions be utilized for the unity of humanity? Scientists should find methods to remove such DNA or RNA to maintain peace in society.

Facts from History - Received by mail from a friend.

Hindus have a long association with Iraq and Muslims. Please read the article below:

The presence in Arabia of many Hindus. mostly Brahmins. before the rise of Islam, has been recorded by the historian Sisir Kumar Mitra, in his book ‘The Vision of India’. page 183. These people observed Hindu religious customs, including the worship of Shiva and Makresha from which the name of Mecca is said to have been derived. The famous astrologer Yavanacharya was born of one such Brahmin family. It was from these Brahmins that the Arabs learned the science of Mathematics, Astrology, Algebra, and decimal notation which were first developed in India.

At the time of the war of Karbala (Oct. 680 AD). Rahab Sidh Datt, a potentate of the Datt sect, was a highly esteemed figure of Arabia due to his close relations with the family of Prophet Mohammed. In the holy war when no Muslim King came to help Hussain. Rahab fought on his side and sacrificed his seven sons (named Sahas Rai. Haras Rai, Sher Khan, Rai Pun, Ram Singh, Dharoo, and Poroo) in the bloody war.

A Brief Account of the Episode: After the death of Mohammed, he was succeeded by Abu Bakr, Omar, and Osman, as the Caliphs: all three were related to him by marriage alliances. Osman was not popular and was assassinated. After his death, Hazrat Ali the son-in-law of Mohammed (he was also his first cousin) who was married to the Prophet’s third daughter and the only surviving issue, Bibi Fatima Zahira, became the 4th Caliph. There was stiff opposition to Ali’s rule from Amir Moavia, a known protege of Osman. He fought with him a bitter war for 5 years and finally got murdered in a mosque of Koofa, his mausoleum with a golden dome, which stands in the nearby town of Najaf (Iraq). After the extermination of Ali, Moavia grabbed the Caliphate and converted the Islamic state into a kingdom, After his death, his notorious son Yazid became the next ruler. However, the rightful claimants of the Caliphate were the descendants of Hazrat Ali, namely, Hassan and Hussain. While Hassan abdicated his claim to the crown and later died of suspected poisoning, his younger brother Imam Hussain who was till then leading a secluded life in Medina, came out and challenged the usurper, Yazid. It was the war of attrition between the two that led to the bloodshed of Karbala (102 km south of Baghdad), on Oct. 10, 680 AD.

The participation of the Mohyals Brahmins and more precisely that of a Dutt family living in Arabia at that time, in the holy war, is a fact of the history. They were a part of the entourage of 200 men and women, including 72 members of Hussain’s family (40 on foot and 32 on horseback), when he left Medina and made an arduous trek to Karbala, where he had a large friendly following. After 18 days, i.e. on the 2nd. day of Muharram, the Hussain’s caravan reached Karbala, on the bank of river Euphrates and surrounded by a hostile desert. On the 7th day of Muharram, all hell broke out when 30,000 strong army sent by Yazid from Mecca and other places, attacked them. 6,000 soldiers guarded the river bank to ensure that not a drop of water reached the Hussain’s thirsty innocents. By sunset of 10th (Ashoor), a Friday, all were dead including his step brother Abbas (32), his son Ali Akbar (22), daughter Skeena (4), and 6 months old infant Ali Asghar who was killed by an arrow while perched in his lap. Imam Hussain himself was slain with thirty-three strokes of lances and swords by Shimr, the hatchet man of ignominious Yazid. The ruffians of Yazid, as they ran carrying the smitten head of Hussain to the castle of Kufa, were chased by Rahab. He retrieved the holy man’s head, washed it reverentially, and then carried it to Damascus. According to legend, he was overtaken by Yazid’s men during his overnight shelter on the way. They demanded Hussain’s head from him: Rahab executed the head of one of his sons and offered to them. They shouted that it was not Hussain’s head, then he beheaded his second son and they again yelled that it was not his. In this way, Rahab executed the heads of his seven sons but did not part with the head of Imam Hussain. Later, after one year, it was buried in Karbala along with the rest of his body.

The intrepid Datts rallied around Amir Mukhtar, the chief of the partisans of Imam Hussain, fought with extraordinary heroism and captured and razed the fort of Kufa, seat of Yazid’s governor, Obaidullah, the Butcher. After scoring a resounding victory on the battlefield, they beat the drums and yelled out that they had avenged the innocent blood of Hussain shed at Karbala.

It is also significant to note that even before the Karbala incident, Hazrat Ali had entrusted the public exchequer to the regiment of the valiant Datts, at the time of the Battle of Camels fought near Basra.

The above provides a piece of impeccable evidence about the pragmatic role played by the Datt Mohyals in the catastrophe of Karbala. There are more than a dozen ballads composed centuries ago that vividly and with great passion describe the scenario of the historic event.

Interestingly, in the Preface of his famous historical novel, titled Karbala, published in 1924 from Lucknow, Munshi Prem Chand has stated that the Hindus who fought and sacrificed their lives in the holy war of Karbala, are believed to be the descendants of Ashwathama. This clearly establishes their link with the Datts who consider Ashwathama as an ancestor of their clan.

Later on, when Sunnis let loose an orgy of vendetta on Shias and Datts, Datts returned to their motherland around 700 AD and settled at Dina Nagar, District Sialkot (vide Bandobast Report of Gujarat by Mirza Azam Beg page 422 and folk songs) and some drifted to as far as the holy Pushkar in Rajasthan. Starting from Harya Bandar (modern Basra on the bank of river Tigris) with swords in hand and beating drums, they forced their way through Syria and Asia Minor and marching onwards captured Ghazni, Balkh, and Bukhara. After annexing Kandhar, they converged on Sind, and crossing the Sind at Attock they entered Punjab.

An ancestor of Rahab named Sidh Viyog Datt assumed the title of Sultan and made Arabia (old name Iraq) his home. He was a tough and tenacious fighter. He was also known as Mir Sidhani. He was a worshipper of Brahma. He was the son of the stalwart Sidh Jhoja (Vaj) who was a savant and saint and lived in Arabia (Iraq) around 600 AD.

The supporters of Hassan and Hussain honoured the Datts with the title of ‘Hussaini Brahmin’ and treated them with great reverence in grateful recognition of the supreme sacrifices made by them in the war of Karbala. According to Jang Nama, written by Ahmed Punjabi, pages 175-176, it was ordained on the Shias to recite the name of Rahab in their daily prayer. At the time to the Karbala, fourteen hundred Hussaini Brahmins lived in Baghdad alone.

Please read this website. I have a little reproduced. But for the details please read the above links.

MOHYAL HISTORY AT A GLANCE is copied from the website Mohyal History at a Glance – Mohyal History

  • Descended from the Rishis, it has been possible to trace the foot prints of ancestors of Mohyals during several centuries of ‘recorded’ history only. To introduce you to Mohyal History we have, here, put together small write ups giving a brief over-view of our past. It is hoped that going through these, you will have an idea what to expect from the subsequent serious reading of the detailed accounts.

  • You will come across many new topics. For example, Hindus were ruling in Afghanistan, when Islam came knocking. They defeated the world conquering Arabs and held up the march of Islamic Arms for several centuries. Ancestors of Mohyals were an important element in that defence of Indian borders. Subjugation of India was not a walk-over. It was the closing phase of a long successful resistance by India. Again, there is a general perception that the caste system is as old as Hindu religion. The present system, of multifarious castes and its inter-marriage fraternities (Biradaris), is actually of comparatively recent origin – only eight centuries old. Try to savor and absorb these new nuggets of knowledge. In the subsequent detailed accounts, credible sources have been cited for everything, if you are a serious student of new knowledge.


  1. Conquering several countries with ease and speed, the Arabs defeated Iran in 640 CE. The Arab Caliphate thus shared a common border with India. Zabul, the south-western region of Afghanistan (south of Koh Hindu Kush) was then the front line state of India bordering Iran. Rutbil, the Kshatriya Raja of Zabul, defeated a large Arab army in 698 CE after which the ARABS DID NOT ATTACK THE HINDU KINGDOM. THIS WAS THE FIRST DEFEAT THAT THE ARAB ARMIES FACED.

  2. Gradually the Arab power waned and the converted Muslims set up independent kingdoms in the eastern Caliphate – the region east of Iran and north-west of Koh Hindu Kush. One of these, the Saffarids, managed to kill Rutbil in 870, by treachery, under the ruse of a peace treaty. The western border of the Hindu Kingdom of Kabul (south-eastern Afghanistan) thus became the north-western frontier of India. Hindu population of Zabul was converted to Islam.

  3. After the foreign hordes (Shaks, Bactrian Greeks, Kushans and Hunas had been expelled or absorbed by the middle of the first millennium CE, the Indian kingdoms kept fighting among themselves for supremacy, completely ignoring the north-west India, which then comprised the region between the river Satluj and Koh Hindu Kush (in Afghanistan)

  4. By then a Brahman Vazir (Minister) had taken over the Buddhist kingdom of Kabul. The successor Brahman dynasty of Kabul (the ancestors of the present-day DATT caste of Mohyals), which was ruling astride the Khyber Pass, continued to protect this strategic gateway to India up to c. 964 CE, from their powerful SAMANI neighbours – another Muslim Kingdom with capital at Samarkand. Later, a Sultanate that had arisen in Ghazni, defeated the Samanis and became very powerful. The Ghaznavids next turned towards India. Another Brahman dynasty (the ancestors of the VAID caste of Mohyals) that had been ruling over Punjab from the ninth century CE, courageously resisted the advance of Ghaznavids, fighting them at Ghazni (c, 986-87 CE), Peshawar (1000 CE), south of Khyber Pass (1008 CE), their capital of Nandana (1014 CE) and a rear-action battle on the bank of river Ramganga (1019 CE).

  5. Hindu India had thus blocked the world-conquering Arabs, and their successor Muslim Kingdoms, for more than three centuries (640-1000 CE). Punjab was annexed to Ghazni in 1021 CE but it took almost two more centuries for the Muslim arms to reach Delhi. The Muslim victors (and their successors) completely excluded these not-so-pleasant–for-them events from narration of History of India during the millennium of foreign rule. That is why you do find any mention about the Mohyal Rulers also in text books.

  6. After Independence also, the researchers of history have never focused their attention beyond the river Satluj, in respect of this Early Indo-Islamic History. Fortunately, certain accounts of pre-Ghaznavid history have been left by some Muslim chroniclers which are vouchsafed by inscriptions and coins that continue turning up in Afghanistan. These heroes of Hindu History, Mohyal Sovereigns among them, who defended that region for so long, on their own strength and grit, remain unsung. We are trying to highlight those events.

  7. The teaching of Medieval Indian History begins with the raids of Mahmud Ghaznavi. The history of the earlier period (seventh to tenth century) should now be incorporated in the text books to give balanced view of India’s resistance to Muslim invaders: Mohyal History is part of that. Unfortunately, there does not appear to be any effort in progress even under the present political dispensation, to revise college text books relating to the Medieval Period.

  8. Full authentic account in respect of rule by ancestors of DATTS and VAID Mohyal Brahmans over Afghanistan and Punjab, was made available (2010) in the book AFGHANISTAN REVISITED:The Brahmana Hindu Shahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab: (c. 840-1026 CE). Other NEW WAVE books, giving authentic account of other facets of Mohyal History have also followed within this decade.

  9. It should be clearly understood that Mohyal Kings ruling in Afghanistan and Punjab were not mere “Jageerdaars”. They were Parameshwar, Maharajadhiraj, the sovereign rulers, as mentioned in the stone inscriptions found in Afghanistan. They were at par with other powerful dynasties of their times, ruling in Central Asia and Central India. We reproduce here the text from the Back Cover of the book AFGHANISTAN REVISITED … referred to above.

  10. Three Great Kingdoms that did not quarrel among themselves in a violent world.

In The beginning of the ninth century three great kingdoms established themselves … one each at Bukhara/Samarkand, Kannauj and Kabul/Waihind. They were controlling the route used by trade caravans carrying Indian goods to Central Asia, and onwards to Europe, linking with the famous ‘Silk Route’.

The SAMANIDS of Bukhara occupied the whole of eastern Caliphate; broke the power of the Saffarids of Sistan and became virtually independent of their overlord – the Caliph of Baghdad. It was the most vibrant and prosperous period of Central Asia.

The BRAHMANA HINDU SHAHIS OF KABUL, the Hindu neighbouring state maintained a credible ‘Balance of Power’ and prosperity, to deter the Samanids from any (mis)adventure towards the Khyber Pass – thus protecting India. Their history is highlighted here.

At the other end, the Gurjara-Pratiharas of Kannauj, the leading power of Northern India during the most prosperous period of Indian history, also did not harm the Shahis.

These three great kingdoms rose and declined almost simultaneously; did not fight among themselves; collected the ‘Peace Bonus’ in the form of trade taxes; and were decimated again almost simultaneously, by one person – Sultan Mahmud ruling from his central vantage place of Ghazni.



Mohyal History is a sub-chapter of History of India. Having been researched and authenticated according to the cannons of historical writing, we wanted claims of Mohyal History, as narrated in our book AFGHANISTAN REVISITED, to be evaluated by the professionals: and it did receive notice early enough. It was Reviewed, extensively, in a prestigious Research Journal, ITIHAS DARPAN of Akhil Bharatiya Itihas Sankalan Yojna, New Delhi, Vol. XVI (1) April, 2011, pages 120-125. This Journal, issued bi-annually, publishes only Research Papers on History. We quote from it:

Mohan, R. T.: Afghanistan Revisited: The Brahmana Hindu Shahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab (840-1026 CE); History Research and Archives Forum of Mohyal Foundation, General Mohyal Sabha (Regd.)Delhi, 2010, pp. xxxi + 207, price US$ 18.95, special Indian price Rs. 300/=

Afghanistan Revisited is a history of Hindu Shahis of Afghanistan and Punjab, which the author fondly calls ‘The Brahmana Hindu Shahi’ because some historians have accepted them as ancestors of the present Mohyal Brahmans. The author, Sri Ram Tirath Mohan, a retired Diplomatic Officer from Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi, himself belongs to one of the seven communities of this branch of the Brahmans has treated the subject in a scholarly manner and as such this work, though a chapter of India’s history may also be considered as micro-history of Mohyal Brahmans.

For last few years I am working on Central Asia Thesis of Vedic Civilization (CATVC) that professes that Vedic civilization originated in Central Asia and from there it spread throughout the word in various stages. But its nucleus, preserved by the Vedic people, shifted southwards in India; Afghanistan being an important centre till the end of the first millennium of the common era. Thus when I saw this book in the shelf of Sri Balmukandji, now the Organising Secretary of A.B. Itihas Sankalan Yojna in the Apte Bhawan, Keshav Kunj, New Delhi I cursorily read it and felt that this can be reviewed in the IItihasa Darpan. Mny. Balmukandji had two copies of the book presented by the author, and he kindly gave me one of it for the purpose.

[A detailed Review, of more than four A-4 size pages, follows in which the learned author gives his own views also on the subject, published by him earlier. We reproduce here his concluding para.]

The book is decently produced and nicely printed. Typesetting could have been improved. I congratulate the author for producing such a nice work. (emphasis added)

  1. T. P. Verma: The learned Reviewer Prof. T.P. Verma, Retired Head of Department of History, Banaras Hindu University, was then the Editor of the magazine ITIHAS DARPAN

  2. BOOK REVIEW IN A PRESTEGIOUS DEFENCE JOURNAL: The book AFGHANISTAN REVISITED received notice in another prestigious journal also. It was reviewed in the JOURNAL OF THE UNITED SERVICES INSTITUTION OF INDIA (USIS JOURNAL), India’s Oldest Journal on Defence Affairs (Established :1870), Vol. CXLII, April-June 2012, No. 588, page 307. We reproduce

  3. Afghanistan Revisited: The Brahmana Hindu Shahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab (c. 840-1026 CE). By RT Mohan, (New Delhi, General Mohyal Sabha Foundation, 2010), pp. 207, Price Rs. 300/- ISBN N.A.

As the name suggests, the book traces the history of the Hindu Shahi dynasties of North West India and Afghanistan over a crucial period of two centuries during the medieval era. This was the period that saw the rise and spread of the monotheistic doctrine of Islam throughout Central Asia and the Hindu Kush into South Asia. The author traces the history and ethnicity of the last Hindu kingdoms that held sway in Afghanistan and undivided Punjab till they were ultimately decimated by the invasions of Mahmud of Ghazni.

The book is significant in shedding light on an epoch of Indian history obscured by the successive writings of successive Islamic and colonial historians who, for reasons of their own, tended to deliberately gloss over the events that preceded the political ascendency of Islam in South Asia.

The author describes the time of the Hindu-Shahis and covers, chapter-wise, the various rulers who made up the dynasties. There are four appendices and an epilogue. These discuss various important inscriptions ad coins, while the epilogue focuses on the ethnicity of Hindu Shahis and links them to Mohyal Brahman clans of North India. The Mohyals, long known as the fighting Brahmans, have a long and proud history of military service, more in consonance with the Kshatriyas rather than the Bramanical varna. The seven principal exogamous families are: Datt, Vaid, Bali, Chhibber, Mohan, Bamwal or Bhimwal and Lawa. One of the most astounding pieces of ancient Mohyal folklore is their association with the armies of the Holy Prophet of Islam in seventh century Arabia, where they are said to have fought under the banner of Amir Mukhtar and helped avenge the death of the Prophet’s grandson, Imam Hussain, by razing the fort of Kufa in 686 CE.

Although the author of this work is not a academician he has put together a tome worthy of high academic merit and the author does a commendable job in applying universal style format throughout. The book is an important addition to the historiography of medieval Indian history.

Squadron Leader Rana TS Chhinna (Retd.)

The Reviewer Sqn Ldr Rana TS Chhinna (Retd.) was the Secretary and Editor of the CENTRE FOR ARMED FORCES HISTORICAL RESEARCH BOARD OF MANAGEMENT.

A SYNOPSIS OF MOHYAL HISTORY/ Mohyal Itihas Praveshika (Hindi) http://mohyalhistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Synopsispdf.pdf.

It was felt that in the digital age most people do not have the habit of reading serious books. It was therefore decided to compile a very short version – a SYNOPSIS – of Mohyal History, which can be read in a single sitting. We append here the booklet A SYNOPSIS OF MOHYAL HISTORY together with its Hindi version MOHYAL ITIHAS PRAVESHIKA. This is your introduction to Mohyal history. It has become very popular and more than two thousand copies have already been distributed, free, mainly through the local and central Mohyal Sabhas, particularly at their major functions /Milans. We want that a copy should reach every Mohyal home. You are welcome to ask for free copies from the Mohyal Sabha, Panchkula for personal use or distribution at major functions like Mundan/Marriage – reminding the great Mohyals about their glorious past. During old times our Bhats (bards) appeared on their own to sing Muhiyal kahavan kathin hai, mukh kahe no ho Muhiyal … Now we have to keep reminding ourselves and coaching our younger generations.

BASED ON POTHI RAI SEEGARH AND JANGNAMA MOHANAN http://mohyalhistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/jangnama-Mohana.pdf.

Most of the literature about Mohyal History, produced in the first half of the twentieth century, was lost due to the Partition of the country in 1947: among these Islahe Mohyali by Raizada Ratan Chand Vaid (c. 1908), Pothi Rai Seegarh, various caste Jangnamas etc. A short treatise on Mohyal History (Urdu) was published by Chaudhari Gauri Shankar Datt ‘Kanjrurvi’ at Lahore in 1923, which had a limited circulation. During our search, we were able to retrieve (a photocopy of) this history book from a saintly Datt family of Mendhar, a small town now on the border of J&K. Nothing remarkable by itself, it has the text of the Jangnama Mohanan, in verse, which seems to have been compiled by another Rai (Bhat) of a Mohan clan. To preserve this heritage item, we have re-written the text of the Jangnama in Dev Nagari script (from its original in Urdu) and published it as a booklet, together with a brief history of the Mohan caste of Mohyals. We take this opportunity to thank Sh. O. P. Mohan, former Senior Vice President of GMS, for his patronage in its production. Like the Synopsis of Mohyal History, this booklet is also being distributed free. It is reproduced here in full.

"Dutt Sultan : Adhe Hindu Adhe Musalman" दत्त सुलतान /आधे हिन्दू आधे मुसलमान //

Jaipal Datta


Jaipal Datta with Managing Director of Mohan Meakin Ltd and executives of Himachal Government from Shimla

2011 - Jaipal Datta with the Managing Director of Mohan Meakin Kapil Mohan V.S.M. and Padma Shree. Himachal Pradesh government employees came to request him to visit Shimla Hanuman Temple. Mr. Mohan built many temples in Himachal, MAHARASHTRA, Andhra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu along with breweries, distilleries and fruit juice industries.

Baldev Bali - President of General Mohyal Sabha (India) with his wife Rani Bali. Bali Sahib was Managing Director of Trade Links and Mount Shivalik Breweries Ltd, Punjab, India.

1976 - Gurusharan Singh (Father), Satyawati (mother), Nina (Wife), Jaipal Datta, Ramrakhi Mohan (Father's Bhua), Ram Dei (Nani), Jyoti Mohan, V.N.MOhan, Asha Rani Mohan, Geeta Bali, Usha Mohan, Chander Prakash Bali, Pushpa Mohan, Inti Mehta, Jitendra Bali (Phakkad), Haridwari (from Haridwar).

Ca. 1950 - Sardar Shayam Singh Managing Agent of Amritsar Sugar Factory Rohana Kalan, Muzaffar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh with his team of executives. In second row Gurusharan Singh Datta - Manager and Mohinder Sain - Chief Engineer can be seen 4th and 5th from left.

2014 - Photo after Mohyal Meeting in Solan, Himachal Pradesh. Jaipal Datta awarded prize to the younger Mohyals boys and girls.